Hannover Re calculates the economic equity as the difference between the market-consistent value of the assets and the market-consistent value of the liabilities. The corresponding measurement principles also largely apply to the Intrinsic Value Creation (IVC), our performance indicator used for controlling purposes. While fair values are available for most investments, the market-consistent valuation of reinsurance treaties necessitates a specific valuation model. We establish the market-consistent value of technical items as the present value of projected payments using actuarial methods. This is adjusted by a risk loading that factors in the fluctuation in future payments. Such fluctuations result from risks that cannot be hedged by means of capital market products, such as underwriting risks. We use risk-free interest rates derived from yields on the highest-quality government bonds for discounting of our future cash flows. Market prices for options and guarantees embedded in insurance contracts are determined or approximated using option valuation models from the field of financial mathematics. The methods used are the same as those adopted in the calculation of our Market Consistent Embedded Value (MCEV). The significance of these options and guarantees in our portfolio is, however, minimal.

The available economic capital, which is available as liable capital for policyholders, is composed of the economic equity and the hybrid capital. The internal capital model is based on current methods from actuarial science and financial mathematics. In the case of underwriting risks, we are able to draw on a rich internal data history to estimate the probability distributions, e. g. for the reserve risk. For risks from natural perils we use external models, which are adjusted in the context of a detailed internal review process such that they reflect our risk profile as closely as possible. In the area of life and health reinsurance long-term payment flows are modelled under various scenarios. With respect to all the aforementioned risks we use internal data to define scenarios and probability distributions. The internal data is enhanced by way of parameters set by our internal experts. These parameters are especially significant in relation to extreme events that have not previously been observed.

When it comes to aggregating the individual risks, we make allowance for dependencies between risk factors. Dependencies arise, for example, as a consequence of market shocks, such as the financial crisis, which simultaneously impact multiple market segments. What is more, several observation periods may be interrelated on account of market phenomena such as price cycles. In dealing with these dependencies, however, it is our assumption that not all extreme events occur at the same time. The absence of complete dependency is referred to as diversification. Hannover Re’s business model is based inter alia on building up the most balanced possible portfolio so as to achieve the greatest possible diversification effects and in order to deploy capital efficiently. Diversification exists between individual reinsurance treaties, lines, business segments and risks. We define the cost of capital to be generated per business unit according to the capital required by our business segments and lines and based on their contribution to diversification.